Archive for October, 2019
WCBM, Baltimore Announces Programming Changes. Charm City news/talk outlet WCBM “Talk Radio 680” announces a number of coming programming changes. Starting in morning drive, longtime newsman and co-host Frank Luber exits the show but will stay with the station to help with special projects and to continue to serve as a spokesman for some of its major advertisers. WCBM says that Luber and Nicholas Mangione were “instrumental in establishing WCBM as a major news/talk presence in Baltimore.” Beginning November 4, late morning talk host Bruce Elliott joins Sean Casey (who continues to serve as the station’s PD) for “The Morning Drive with Casey & Elliott.” Stepping into the 9:00 am to 12:00 noon talk host role is Derek Hunter, who returns to Baltimore after having served in recent years with the Heritage Foundation, Americans for Tax Reform, and as managing editor at The Daily Caller. The station also adds “The FOX News Rundown” for the 5:00 am to 6:00 am hour and Key Networks’ “The O’Reilly Update” with Bill O’Reilly to air from 11:45 am to 12:00 noon.
Monday Memo: Pronouncers for Announcers. How-you-say what-you-say makes a difference, and (obvious) former high school English teacher Holland Cooke explains in this week’s column. Read it here.
ISIS Leader Dead, Impeachment Inquiry/Ukraine Scandal, 2020 Presidential Race, Rep. Katie Hill Resigns, California Wildfires/Power Blackouts, and Brexit Extension Among Top News/Talk Stories Over the Weekend. The death of ISIS leader Abu Bakr al Baghdadi is reported by President Trump; the impeachment inquiry against President Trump and the related allegations of illegal actions against Trump, and Joe and Hunter Biden with regard to the Ukraine; the Democrats vying to challenge President Trump in 2020, U.S. Rep. Katie Hill (D-CA) resigns her seat after being accused of improper relations with a campaign staffer; the wildfires in California and PG&E’s shutting off electricity to almost 1 million customers; and Boris Johnson gets an extension to January 31 for Britain’s exit from the EU were some of the most-talked-about stories on news/talk radio over the weekend, according to ongoing research from TALKERS magazine.
Newsmax TV Presents Presidential Town Hall. In conjunction with the League of United Latin American Citizens, Newsmax TV presented a two-hour Presidential Town Hall with top Democratic candidates last Thursday (10/24). Taking part in the Newsmax Town Hall at the Iowa Events Center in Des Moines were candidates Bernie Sanders, Beto O’Rourke, Tulsi Gabbard, and Julian Castro. The live Newsmax TV production reached 70 million cable homes.
FOX News Radio Makes ‘Rundown’ Available for Radio Stations. “The FOX News Rundown” launched in 2017 as a podcast hosted by Dave Anthony, Lisa Brady, and Jessica Rosenthal. Now, FOX News Radio is making the program available as an early morning weekday news hour “perfect for setting the stage for your local morning show.” FNR says, “‘The Rundown’ takes a deeper dive into the stories that are important to you and your listeners. Hosted by the anchors of FOX News Radio, the ‘Rundown’ also features voices from FOX News Channel, FOX Business Channel and the world of politics and entertainment.”
Ben & Skin Exit ‘105.3 The Fan’ in Dallas. The midday duo Ben & Skin – Ben Rogers and Jeff “Skin” Wade – have resigned their positions with Entercom’s sports talk KRLD-FM, Dallas for an opportunity elsewhere. They are being replaced in the station lineup by evening duo Kevin Hageland and Cory Mageors. It’s not known if this is a permanent move or not. Regardless, morning drive co-host Shan Shariff tweeted that the duo was not fired and was moving on to another opportunity.
TALKERS News Notes. Former White House press secretary Sarah Sanders will serve as the keynote speaker at the 2020 Todd Starnes Faith and Freedom Celebration to be held at Truett McConnell University in Cleveland, Georgia on April 18, 2020. The annual event has raised more than $300,000 in scholarship money for students at the Christian school. Starnes says, “I can’t say enough great things about Sarah. Our media company is committed to super-serving the communities that broadcast my programs and bringing nationally known speakers to our event is a part of that effort.”…..WODS, Boston morning drive personality TJ Taormina has launched a podcast on Entercom’s RADIO.COM platform called, “Meet My Wife.” Taormina tells TALKERS, “It was an opportunity for me to step up to a blank canvas and create something from scratch. It starts in a music recording studio with a full band and travels from grocery store parking lots, to the middle of Boston Common, to my home living room. I wanted to take a unique approach to the rapidly growing podcast arena and make it something that could complement my daily live radio show.”…..Entercom’s board of directors have approved a clawback policy for five of its highest-paid executives. A clawback is a provision in an employment contract that states money paid to an employee may have to be returned. It’s usually for highly compensated executives and is intended as a sign of goodwill toward investors. In Entercom’s case, stock ownership guidelines were included with this move and require president and CEO David Field to hold Entercom shares equal to at least six times his base salary. It requires CFO Rich Schmaeling, COO Weezie Kramer, chief revenue officer Robert Philips, and EVP/general counsel Andrew Sutor to hold shares of at least two times their base salaries…..Boston public radio news/talk WGBH-FM is adding the NPR-distributed program “1A” to its lineup, airing from 10:00 am to 11:00 am. The program is hosted by Joshua Johnson and focuses on First Amendment issues “related to policy, politics, technology, pop culture, sports, and humor.” The program’s goal is to “act as a national mirror — taking time to help America look at itself and to ask what it wants to be.”
WHAT IS REAL? Former WWE Champion Mick Foley Is Guest on Harrison Podcast. One of the most theatrical professional wrestlers of the modern era who blurred the line between reality and fiction as much as anyone who ever played the game, Mick Foley, guests on the award-winning PodcastOne series “The Michael Harrison Interview.” Foley created several of wrestling’s most memorable characters, including Cactus Jack and Mankind, participating in physically damaging stunts that took his body past the limits of safety and protection. Although he played brutish, psychotic characters, Foley went on to become a best-selling author, public speaker, and articulate supporter of a variety of charities and social causes. In a fascinating one-on-one conversation, Harrison and Foley discuss the nature of reality TV and the role it plays in today’s political circus citing Donald Trump’s participation in the WWE prior to his presidency as an early example of the Commander in Chief’s penchant for mixing over-the-top theatrics with the semblance of real life storylines. Don’t miss this! To listen to the podcast in its entirety, please click here or click on the player box marked “The Michael Harrison Interview” located in the right-hand column of the TALKERS email newsletter or on every page of Talkers.com.
Music Radio News and Career Moves. Programming pro Steve Hoffman is named program director for Beasley Media Group’s hot AC KVGS-FM and assistant program director for sister urban contemporary KOAS, effective October 14. Hoffman has been consulting for the past few years. He was previously on air at KSWD, Los Angeles and programmed KCAL, Riverside for 15 years. Beasley Las Vegas VP and market manager Peter Burton states, “We have been interested in bringing Steve into the fold for quite some time. I had the pleasure of working with him in Los Angeles for five years. Hiring Steve allows us to continue to surround ourselves with the best in the industry.”…..At Entercom’s CHR KAMP, Los Angeles, Chris Booker shifts from the afternoon drive show to AM drive where he’ll work with co-host Chelsea Briggs and Krystal Bee. The new show replaces Edgar “Shoboy” Sotelo. He’d been paired with Brian Moote and Briggs. Briggs exited the station in August. Taking over Booker’s afternoon drive show is midday personality Yesi Ortiz. Moving to middays from weekends is Christen…..iHeartMedia names Adam Rivers program director for its four-station cluster in New Haven. He’d been serving as APD and music director at CHRs WKCI “KC101” and WKSS “KISS 95-7.” He’s now also programming news/talk WELI and sports talk WAVZ “ESPN 1300.” iHeartMedia Hartford Region president Steve Honeycomb says, “Over the past several years, Adam has truly been the backbone here at ‘KC101’ and a staple in Connecticut radio. Adam’s years of experience and the way he engages with his listeners go far beyond his afternoon drive show and we couldn’t be happier to see him evolve into this new role here in New Haven, Connecticut.”
By Holland Cooke
BLOCK ISLAND, RI — Warning: I was once a high school English teacher. And the way I write has several of my high school English teachers spinning-in-their-graves. Mrs. Krause once told me, “It looks like, after you write something, you sprinkle it with a salt shaker of hyphens.” So the following is not meant to nit-pick.
Chris Stigall to Take Over Mornings on Salem’s WNTP, Philadelphia. Eight months after exiting Entercom’s news/talk WPHT, Philadelphia where he’d been AM drive host for nine years, Chris Stigall is joining Salem Media Group’s WNTP, Philadelphia “NewsTalk 990 AM” to host the morning show, effective November 4. The station says, “Stigall has been talking with Philadelphia for years, waking radio audiences each morning with razor-sharp wit, a pull-no-punches opinion, and captivating guest interviews. He’s covered everything from political conventions to the Super Bowl parade and sugary beverage taxes. From train derailments and protests to the Mummers to law enforcement heroes, Stigall has talked with Philadelphia about it all.” WNTP general manager Lorenzo Caldara says, “We are all very proud to have Chris join our roster of some of the best talent on radio today. Chris brings with him depth of knowledge of both local and national politics while evoking both thought and laughter from his audience. I look forward to hearing Chris engage our great city and beyond every morning Monday through Friday.”
NOW POSTED: New Installment of “The Michael Harrison Wrap: An Overview of the National Conversation.” The vibrant one-hour weekend special, “The Michael Harrison Wrap,” that looks back each week at the hottest topics discussed in American talk media per the research of TALKERS magazine, is now posted on the website of its flagship station, iHeartMedia’s WONK-FM, Washington, DC (10/25). The new episode titled “All the World’s a Stage!” looks back at this past week of October 21-25, 2019 and features guests (in order of appearance): Kevin Casey, executive editor, TALKERS magazine; Mick Foley, former WWE champion/author/public speaker; Joyce Kaufman, talk show host, WFTL, Fort Lauderdale/Miami/Palm Beaches; Dom Giordano, talk show host WPHT, Philadelphia; Bali Samra, commentator, Pioneer Valley Radio/Human Resources consultant; and Victoria Jones, executive director, DC Radio Company. This acclaimed news/talk radio show airs on WONK-FM on Friday afternoons between 6:00 pm and 7:00 pm as well as other stations around the country including KSCO, Santa Cruz, CA; and KBKW, Aberdeen, WA as a special week-in-review and during the weekend on the Virginia Talk Radio Network as well as Pioneer Valley Radio in Springfield, MA and the iHeartRadio App. To listen to this week’s episode (and the program’s complete archives), please click here. To view the latest TALKERS magazine topic research, please click here.
Entercom and AccuWeather Announce Digital Content Partnership. This new relationship between Entercom and AccuWeather integrates the AccuWeather widget across all RADIO.COM station websites, providing hyper-localized forecasts for users accessing RADIO.COM content. Entercom says the widget will provide current temperature, precipitation, and high and low temperatures in an easy to interpret design and will direct users to the AccuWeather website for more detailed and extensive forecasts. RADIO.COM SVP and general manager Pam Russo says, “This new integration adds real value for our users and we are pleased to team up with AccuWeather, the leaders in the weather information space, to further personalize their experience on RADIO.COM. Our listeners trust and recognize AccuWeather’s unparalleled weather reports from our on-air programming and we’re excited to now make this content available to them online.”
Impeachment Inquiry/Ukraine Scandal Top News/Talk Story for Week of October 21-25. The Democrats impeachment inquiry against President Trump and the related allegations of Trump’s withholding aid to Ukraine unless it investigates Joe and Hunter Biden was the most-talked-about story on news/talk radio this week, landing atop the Talkers TenTM. At #2 this week was the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Syria and the lifting of sanctions on Turkey. Coming in at #3 was Mark Zuckerberg’s appearance before the House Financial Services Committee, followed by the Brexit turmoil and Canadian election, tied at #4. The Talkers TenTM is a weekly chart of the top stories and people discussed on news/talk radio during the week and is the result of ongoing research from TALKERS magazine. It is published every Friday at Talkers.com. See this week’s complete chart here.
TALKERS News Notes. On October 16, Entercom closed on the remaining equity in Cadence13 and DGital Media, for which it paid approximately $50 million. In August of 2017, Entercom entered into a deal to acquire a 45% stake in DGital Media and in August of this year reached an agreement in principle to acquire podcast producer Cadence13…..Forever Media’s news/talk WRSC “NewsRadio 1390” and sports talk WQWK “ESPN Radio 1450 in State College, Pennsylvania add FM translators to their broadcasts. WQWK is now also heard on W279DK, State College at 103.7 FM and WRSC is also heard on W227DV, State College at 93.3 FM…..REELZ announces that two more of its original series are headed to PodcastOne with the launch of “Autopsy: The Last Hours of…” on Wednesday, October 30 and “Copycat Killers” on Thursday, November 21. New podcasts for both will be available every week on Apple Podcasts and PodcastOne. Both programs were originally slated to debut in 2020 but advanced to this year in response to customer demand based on the success of the network’s “Murder Made Me Famous” podcasts on PodcastOne. PodcastOne CEO Peter Morris says, “We have developed an incredible partnership with REELZ, and the fan demand is real (pun intended). We can’t wait to bring this additional highly-produced content from the popular true-crime genre to even more people.”…..SiriusXM announces the return of “Center Court with Patrick Ewing to its ESPNU Radio channel. The weekly show airs Mondays at 7:00 pm ET throughout the basketball season with Rick “Doc” Walker as co-host…..Podcast network Lemonada Media launches the new show “As Me with Sinéad,” hosted by Irish activist and academic Sinéad Burke. She recently graced the cover of British Vogue and was the first little person to attend the Met Gala. The series features candid conversations with diverse and notable guests that explore the human condition. The first episode features Victoria Beckham and the second, Tig Notaro. Burke says, “I live in a world that was not designed for me. I live in a body that provokes a reaction and one which has required the kindness of strangers for my independence. My advocacy is rooted in the notion that the disabled community should not be transformed to fit within the world. This lived experience has cultivated an unparalleled empathy, one that allows this podcast to be a space for intimate conversations with people we know about what it is like to live as them. My podcast will tilt the lens on how we view the world and make it an easier place for all of us to fully be ourselves.”
Oink Ink Announces Call for Entries for 19th Annual Dead Radio Contest. Creative radio ad shop Oink Ink is announcing its call for entries for the 2019 Dead Radio Contest. The contest is a competition for advertising copywriters who have written radio scripts that were never selected by the client. A panel of industry leaders will judge the entries and choose the best “dead” spot, along with two runners-up. The grand prize winner receives a trip to Oink’s studios in New York City where the once-killed script is brought back to life fully cast, directed, and produced. Oink Ink says the contest began as a “humble platform to shine light on great-but-overlooked radio ads has become an arena for writers to gain recognition for stellar work that wasn’t always embraced by clients. Whether thought to be too provocative, too silly, or perhaps simply not considered. The occasional winning Dead spot has caused some clients to think twice about their initial rejection; some ads have even made it to air and gone on to win international advertising awards.” Oink Ink president Dan Price says, “In fact, since the contest began, about eight winning spots went on to eventually win at various award shows.” Since 1998, spots written for IKEA, Southwest Airlines, Durex, Miller Lite, Verizon, and even M.A.D.D. have earned recognition as the best of the Dead. Find out more about the contest here.
Music Radio News and Career Moves. At Cox Media Group’s Orlando country station WWKA “K92.3,” Michael “Slater” Wheaton moves from his on-air producer role on the “Obie & Ashley in the Morning” show to host of the afternoon drive daypart. Slater says, “I’m excited for what the future holds for the ‘K92.3’ on-air family. Our listeners deserve the ultimate afternoon experience that is second to none and I won’t stop until that’s what they receive.” Also at WWKA, Melissa Quinones rises from part-time night host to full-time midday personality. She comments, “I grew up in Orlando listening to the music and on-air personalities of ‘K92.3.’ Being able to say that I am now a full-time part of this team is a dream come true.” Taking over the evening show is Macie Banks, who is based at the Cox Media Group Athens, Georgia operations where she hosts mornings on WNGC…..Townsquare Media Portland names Kwame Dankwa brand manager and afternoon drive personality for CHR WJBQ. Dankwa arrives in Portland from iHeartMedia’s CHR WRTS, Erie “Star 104.”…..Programming pro Nick Fox leaves his PD post at Cumulus Media’s WXBM-FM, Pensacola “NASH FM 102.7” to relocate to Colorado where his wife is beginning a new job…..WECK, Buffalo “Oldies 102.9/100.5 FM and 1230 AM” names market legend Roger Christian host of the new “WECK More Music Morning Show,” effective October 28. Christian recently joined WECK as a swing-shift personality and host of ‘The WECK Road Show’ after spending 43 years at Entercom’s hot AC WTSS. He takes over for Tom Donahue and Gail Ann Huber, who are being offered alternate roles with the station. WECK president Buddy Shula says, “We’re thrilled to have Roger on our team. WECK will be playing more music in the morning, but we’ll continue to serve our listeners with the critical information they need to start their day, so they don’t have to worry about missing anything important.”…..“BOB & TOM” show host Tom Griswold (pictured below) is playing the role of the desk clerk at the Hotel of Spells — the 56th Annual Haunted House benefiting The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis. This is Griswold’s fifth year as a celebrity haunter at the Hotel of Spells.
iHeartMedia and BuzzFeed Create ‘Impeachment’ Podcast. Just two days after former Donald Trump adviser Stephen K. Bannon started his “War Room: Impeachment” podcast and radio show, iHeartMedia and BuzzFeed News roll out “Impeachment Today,” a daily podcast covering the Trump impeachment process hosted by BuzzFeed News senior reporter Hayes Brown. The show is distributed through the iHeartPodcast Network beginning today (10/24). iHM and BuzzFeed News call it “a digestible, 10- to 15-minute news breakdown of the day’s impeachment process, debuting each morning and helping listeners make sense of the all-consuming political and legal saga that will captivate U.S. politics in the months to come.” iHeartPodcast Network president Conal Byrne states, “The current climate of fast changing news cycles often makes it difficult to keep up with complex topics like the Trump impeachment proceedings. Podcasting is an ideal medium to dissect this news coverage and make it available to listeners in a way that is quick and easy to digest while on the go, and Buzzfeed is the perfect partner to breakdown this crucial information for listeners in an appealing daily podcast format.”
The Herd Podcast Network Launches Dallas Cowboys Podcast. A new football podcast dedicated to the NFL’s Dallas Cowboys debuts on The Herd Podcast Network. FOX Sports Radio and Premiere Networks announce the launch of “The ‘Boys and Girl Podcast,” hosted by Dallas-based NFL Network reporter Jane Slater and NFL Network field producer Bobby Belt. New episodes of the podcast will be available on Wednesdays and Fridays throughout football season, with episodes continuing in the off-season. Slater says, “As a Dallas native who reports on the Cowboys daily, I’ve found there is no offseason – the appetite for more content is as strong as Ezekiel Elliott’s desire to be fed on the field. When Colin Cowherd approached me about this podcast, it was a no brainer. My producer Bobby Belt and I talk this beat 24/7 and we’re excited to share those conversations with the fans.”
Michael Koolidge Show Adds Third Hour. The WROK, Rockford, Illinois-based Michael Koolidge show adds a third hour and is now airing from 3:00 pm to 6:00 pm. Koolidge says that affiliate WZUS, Decatur, Illinois “Talk 101 FM” requested the additional hour. “Talk 101 FM” operations manager Storm Edwards says, “Mike’s show has been on ‘Talk 101FM’ from 3:00 pm to 5:00 pm for over five years now and it’s extremely popular with our listeners. When we asked Mike if he could create an additional third hour from 5:00 pm to 6:00 pm daily, he jumped at the chance and we all couldn’t be happier about it. I’m sure other affiliates will take advantage of it as well!” Koolidge’s show is heard on a number of regional affiliate stations including: WTAX-AM/FM, Springfield and WTAD, Quincy in Illinois as well as Hillsdale College’s WRFH-LP, Hillsdale, Michigan.
Tegna Chief Dave Lougee to Receive BFoA’s Golden Mike Award. The Broadcasters Foundation of America announces that Tegna president and CEO Dave Lougee is the recipient of its 2020 Golden Mike Award. The award will be presented during a black-tie gala on Wednesday, March 4 at the famed Plaza Hotel in New York City. The annual event is a major fundraiser in support of the mission of the Broadcasters Foundation of America to provide aid to broadcasters in acute need. Lougee says, “When devastation strikes one of our colleagues, it’s good to know the Foundation is there to help. I’m so very proud of the generosity of the many broadcasters who support and donate to the Broadcasters Foundation and I am honored to receive their Golden Mike Award.” BFoA chairman Dan Mason adds, “As a member of our board of directors, Dave has made a difference in the lives of the many broadcasters the Foundation helps. Dave is an exemplary broadcaster who leads his team in serving their local markets with journalistic integrity. We are proud to honor him.” Previous recipients of the Golden Mike Award include: Perry Sook, Emily Barr, David Barrett, Michael Bloomberg, Bob Pittman, Gordon Smith, Jeff Smulyan, and more.
TALKERS News Notes. Radio executive and McVay Media principal Mike McVay and Sun Broadcast Group announce that McVay is serving as an advisor to SBG with his focus being on the company’s international platform. McVay’s role will be to consult Sun CEO Jay Bailey and the company as they grow their international digital and international product line…..One of the carriers of the new “War Room: Impeachment” talk show hosted by former Breitbart exec and former Donald Trump strategist Stephen K. Bannon is the John Fredericks Radio Network based at WJFN-FM, Goochland, Virginia…..RADIO.COM’s Pineapple Street Studios is producing “The Catch and Kill Podcast with Ronan Farrow” in partnership with Ronan Farrow. The podcast will serve as an audio companion to his bestselling book, Catch and Kill: Lies, Spies and a Conspiracy to Protect Predators (2019, Little, Brown and Company). Farrow says, “Catch and Kill is full of incredibly compelling men and women and this podcast will give you the opportunity to hear their voices directly, in intimate, candid conversations with me. We’ll provide a deeper understanding of the plot that unravels in the book and feature brand new details and pieces of evidence directly from the investigation.”…..iHeartMedia and Fatherly launch a new iHeartRadio Original podcast, “Finding Fred.” iHM says, “The show digs into the deep and simple language of Mister Rogers to uncover his very adult lessons about how to build a meaningful life.” The 10-episode podcast is hosted by New York Times bestselling author, memoirist, and award-winning podcaster Carvell Wallace. He says, “‘Mister Rogers’ has had a huge impact on an entire generation of children. As this generation becomes parents, raising children of their own, it’s important to discuss how his words and ideas are still relevant today.”
Impeachment Inquiry/Republicans Protest Closed-Door Deposition, Zuckerberg on Capitol Hill, 2020 Presidential Race/Gabbard-Clinton Feud, Syria Pullout/Turkey Sanctions Lifted, California Wildfires/Power Blackouts, Katie Hill Ethics Investigation, and 39 Deceased Found in British Truck Among Top News/Talk Stories Yesterday (10/23). The impeachment inquiry against President Trump and the Republicans’ attempts to gain access to the closed-door deposition; Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg testifies before the House Financial Services Committee about his cryptocurrency plans; the Democrats vying to challenge President Trump in 2020 and the Hillary Clinton–Tulsi Gabbard feud; the U.S. military’s withdrawal from Syria and Trump lifts the sanctions against Turkey; the California wildfires and power blackouts; the ethics investigation being initiated against U.S. Rep. Katie Hill; and the discovery of 39 bodies of Chinese nationals in a truck in Essex, England were some of the most-talked-about stories on news/talk radio yesterday, according to ongoing research from TALKERS magazine.
Music Radio News and Career Moves. On-air pro JJ Kincaid has joined Cumulus Media’s Atlanta CHR WWWQ “Q 99.7.” He made his first appearance on the station yesterday (10/23) in the midday daypart but it’s not clear yet if he’ll be the permanent midday jock or is destined for another daypart on the station. Kincaid was most recently morning drive host at iHeartMedia’s CHR KPTT, Denver “95.7 The Party.”…..The Skyview Networks-syndicated “Dana Cortez Show” adds three new Texas stations to its roster of affiliates. Adding the program to their schedules are: Alpha Media’s KBTE-FM, Lubbock and KVWE-FM, Amarillo; and Four R Broadcasting’s KMDX-FM, San Angelo…..SiriusXM announces that jam band Phish will perform an exclusive concert for SiriusXM and Pandora listeners on Tuesday, December 3 at The Met in Philadelphia. The live performance will mark the smallest venue the band has played in nearly 20 years and will be broadcast live on Tuesday, December 3 at 7:30 pm ET…..Condolences to the family and friends of former, longtime KNCI, Sacramento air personality Dan Cheatham, who died Tuesday (10/22) at age 50. At this time, the Sacramento County Coroner’s Office is saying the cause of death is undetermined.